Chirurgia Oculare LASIK

Cos’è la Chirurgia Oculare LASIK?

La chirurgia LASIK assistita dal laser (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis), nota anche come chirurgia correttiva degli occhi con il laser o semplicemente chirurgia laser, mira a correggere disturbi visivi mediante l’uso di un laser non invasivo. Difetti visivi come ipermetropia, miopia, astigmatismo, nonché aloni e sensibilità alla luce vengono corretti tramite il metodo laser senza l’utilizzo di una lama.

 

Perché viene eseguita la chirurgia LASIK agli occhi?

La chirurgia correttiva degli occhi con il laser viene eseguita per alleviare errori di rifrazione come l’ipermetropia, la miopia, la presbiopia e l’astigmatismo. Alcuni tipi di LASIK riducono aloni, abbagliamenti e migliorano la visione notturna.

 

Quali sono le condizioni per la chirurgia LASIK agli occhi?

Di solito, la chirurgia LASIK viene consigliata ai pazienti che:

  • Sono compresi tra i 25 e i 40 anni, poiché gli errori di rifrazione dovrebbero stabilizzarsi entro questa fascia d’età.
  • Hanno uno spessore corneale sufficiente poiché la cornea deve essere in grado di mantenere la sua forma dopo il LASIK.
  • Hanno una curvatura corneale ottimale; se la cornea è troppo curva o troppo piatta, il LASIK potrebbe non essere un trattamento valido.
  • Non presentano pressione oculare eccessiva o assottigliamento corneale.
  • Non presentano altre malattie che colpiscono l’occhio, come il diabete o il reumatismo.
  • Possono essere sottoposti in modo sicuro ad anestesia locale.

 

Quali sono i tipi di chirurgia LASIK agli occhi?

Esistono 3 tipi comunemente eseguiti di chirurgia LASIK che vengono consigliati in base ai difetti visivi e allo spessore corneale: PRK, iLASIK e Wavefront.

 

PRK:

La PRK (chirurgia fotorefrattiva) è una procedura chirurgica che utilizza un laser preciso per rimuovere il tessuto corneale al fine di correggere gli errori di rifrazione. La PRK viene spesso preferita rispetto ad altri trattamenti quando lo spessore corneale non è adatto per altri trattamenti LASIK. Dopo la PRK, ai pazienti viene fornita una lente a contatto protettiva da indossare per almeno 5 giorni.

 

iLASIK:

iLASIK è il trattamento LASIK più comunemente preferito e ha la più alta possibilità di ottenere una visione 20/20. iLASIK è approvato dalla FDA e ha un così elevato tasso di successo che la NASA autorizza gli astronauti a sottoporsi a iLASIK, mentre altri trattamenti LASIK escludono le persone dal diventare astronauti. iLASIK viene personalizzato per ogni paziente attraverso una mappatura della topografia dell’occhio, simile a Wavefront.

 

Wavefront:

Viene utilizzato un software per creare una dettagliata mappatura della cornea e la chirurgia viene guidata attraverso questa mappatura. Wavefront viene di solito utilizzato per correggere importanti irregolarità non rifrattive, come ipersensibilità alla luce, abbagliamenti, aloni o diminuzione della sensibilità al contrasto. Wavefront è spesso preferito quando il paziente soffre di astigmatismo grave.

 

Cosa bisogna considerare prima della chirurgia LASIK agli occhi?

Si richiede ai pazienti di arrivare in Turchia un giorno prima della data programmata per la chirurgia al fine di sottoporsi a estesi test preoperatori e avere una consultazione con l’oftalmologo responsabile. L’oftalmologo responsabile determina quale procedura verrà eseguita e spiega i dettagli della procedura al paziente.

 

Cosa bisogna considerare dopo la chirurgia LASIK agli occhi?

Sebbene il LASIK sia un intervento ambulatoriale, al paziente viene offerta una notte di ricovero ospedaliero dopo la chirurgia LASIK. È normale che il paziente possa sperimentare visione sfocata e dolore agli occhi per le prime ore dopo l’intervento. Si consiglia al paziente di:

  • Utilizzare i farmaci post-operatori forniti come indicato dal proprio oftalmologo.
  • Assumere antidolorifici se necessario, purché non siano anticoagulanti.
  • Non guidare né andare al lavoro nei giorni successivi all’intervento.
  • Evitare di stare in ambienti polverosi, poiché l’occhio trattato non deve essere strofinato, graffiato, toccato, lavato o bagnato durante le prime 24 ore dopo l’intervento.
  • Allo stesso modo, evitare che il sapone o lo shampoo entrino negli occhi.
  • Utilizzare una lacrima artificiale prescritta dal medico per circa 3-6 mesi dopo l’operazione.

 

Quali sono i rischi della chirurgia LASIK agli occhi?

I rischi della chirurgia LASIK agli occhi includono, ma non si limitano a:

  • Esperienza di occhi lacrimanti e disagio.
  • Occhi secchi o sensazione di bruciore, irritazione, prurito e sensazioni di corpo estraneo nell’occhio.
  • Visione doppia.
  • Dolore o bruciore agli occhi nei primi 2-3 giorni dopo l’intervento.
  • Visione sfocata.

I pazienti sottoposti a chirurgia LASIK inizieranno a vedere chiaramente entro 2-3 giorni e saranno in grado di tornare alla loro vita quotidiana.

 

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