Ginecomastia

O que é a cirurgia de ginecomastia?

 

A ginecomastia, também conhecida como ginecomastia e referida como redução da mama masculina, é o desenvolvimento anormal do tecido mamário nos homens devido a um desequilíbrio entre as hormonas estrogénio e testosterona. A obesidade, o crescimento do tecido mamário devido ao aumento do tecido adiposo em todo o corpo, é chamada pseudo-ginecomastia. A ginecomastia pode desaparecer por si só, mas se não desaparecer, a cirurgia de ginecomastia é a melhor opção para remover o excesso de tecido mamário.

 

Porque é que a cirurgia de ginecomastia é realizada?

 

A ginecomastia pode desenvolver-se em qualquer idade, mas é mais frequente em crianças durante a puberdade e em homens com mais de 50 anos. O aspeto físico causado pela ginecomastia é vulgarmente designado por mamas de homem. O aumento do tamanho das mamas pode ser stressante e embaraçoso para muitos homens. A ginecomastia é o distúrbio mamário masculino mais comum e afecta 50?5% dos homens. A cirurgia da ginecomastia remove completamente o excesso de tecido mamário e dá uma aparência física apelativa aos seios.

 

Quais são as condições para a cirurgia de ginecomastia?

 

A cirurgia de ginecomastia é recomendada para os seguintes pacientes do sexo masculino:

 

  • Os pacientes que são suficientemente saudáveis para serem submetidos a anestesia geral.
  • Os pacientes que têm tecido mamário excessivo.
  • As pacientes com idade superior a 18 anos ou superior a 15 anos com o consentimento dos pais e a recomendação do médico.
  • As pacientes com Índice de Massa Corporal, IMC, inferior a 30.

 

Quais são os factores a ter em conta antes da cirurgia de ginecomastia?

 

Antes da cirurgia:

 

  • O doente deve estar no hospital um dia antes da cirurgia para efetuar os testes pré-operatórios.
  • O doente deve deixar de fumar e de consumir álcool pelo menos 2 semanas antes da cirurgia para reduzir o risco de coágulo sanguíneo.
  • O doente deve evitar medicamentos que contenham aspirina ou ibuprofeno (Advil, Motrin IB, outros) durante duas semanas antes e depois da cirurgia. Estes medicamentos podem aumentar o risco de hemorragia interna. Os pacientes devem confirmar cada medicamento e suplemento que desejam tomar com o coordenador do paciente.
  • O paciente deve parar de tomar suplementos multivitamínicos 7 dias antes da cirurgia, e a vitamina K não deve ser usada durante 30 dias após a cirurgia.
  • A paciente deve parar de tomar contraceptivos orais 30 dias antes da cirurgia.

 

Além disso, o corpo do doente será examinado e medido, e o cirurgião desenhará linhas no corpo para planear onde serão feitas as incisões.

 

Como é efectuada a cirurgia da ginecomastia?

 

A cirurgia de ginecomastia começa com a administração de anestesia geral.

A cirurgia pode incluir a remoção de gordura, tecido mamário, ou ambos. As incisões são feitas à volta dos seios. Se a gordura for removida, é efectuada uma lipoaspiração através da incisão. Se o tecido mamário for removido, o cirurgião remove-o também através da incisão e, em seguida, remodela os seios. Após a remoção do tecido, os mamilos podem ser ajustados para ficarem mais apelativos. As incisões são então seladas com suturas.

 

Se apenas for efectuada a lipoaspiração, a cirurgia demora em média 1 hora. Caso contrário, a cirurgia pode demorar 2 a 4 horas, consoante o tamanho dos seios, o estado do excesso de pele e a técnica cirúrgica a aplicar.

 

Quais são os aspectos a ter em conta após a cirurgia de ginecomastia?

 

Após a cirurgia o tórax será suportado com ligaduras e gessos, se forem colocados drenos tubulares, estes serão removidos 48 horas após a cirurgia. o paciente deve ter os seguintes cuidados

  • O paciente deve usar um espartilho de ginecomastia durante 4 a 6 semanas, que aplicará pressão sobre a mama e será fornecido após a cirurgia.
  • O paciente deve evitar actividades físicas extenuantes, como exercícios pesados, durante 6 semanas após a cirurgia.
  • A paciente deve ter uma dieta saudável, pois isso tornará o processo de cicatrização mais rápido.
  • O paciente deve tomar a medicação prescrita de acordo com as instruções do seu médico.
  • O doente deve evitar deitar-se de barriga para baixo, uma vez que isso exercerá pressão sobre o peito.

 

As pacientes podem regressar ao trabalho 5 a 7 dias após a operação. Proporcionalmente à diminuição do tamanho da mama, o diâmetro do mamilo também diminui e a sua cor adquire um tom mais escuro

 

Quais são os riscos da cirurgia de ginecomastia?

 

Como em qualquer procedimento cirúrgico, existem riscos envolvidos na cirurgia de ginecomastia. Estes incluem, mas não estão limitados aos seguintes:

 

  • Acumulação de fluidos junto à pele,
  • Coágulos de sangue
  • Hemorragia
  • Infeção
  • Inchaço
  • Cicatrização lenta da ferida
  • Cicatrização
  • Alterações na sensação da pele
  • Reação adversa à anestesia

 

Todos os procedimentos de redução mamária deixam cicatrizes de redução mamária.

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