Rinoplastia

O que é a Rinoplastia?

 

A Rinoplastia, também conhecida como Estética do Nariz, é a operação cirúrgica efectuada para alterar a forma do nariz. Existem dois tipos principais de rinoplastia:

 

  • Rinoplastia aberta:

A Rinoplastia Aberta tem como objetivo remodelar significativamente o nariz. O Cirurgião Plástico faz incisões ao longo do nariz para separar completamente a pele do osso e da cartilagem, o que permite ao cirurgião ver a anatomia subjacente do nariz.

  • Rinoplastia fechada:

A Rinoplastia fechada é semelhante à Rinoplastia aberta, mas os pontos são deixados escondidos dentro do nariz.

 

Porque é que se faz uma rinoplastia?

 

A rinoplastia é efectuada para melhorar a função respiratória, para corrigir defeitos físicos ou para melhorar o aspeto estético do nariz. A rinoplastia pode alterar significativamente o tamanho e o aspeto do nariz. As razões médicas para fazer uma rinoplastia incluem as seguintes:

 

  • Septum desviado
  • Fenda palatina
  • Fenda labial
  • Anomalias estruturais relacionadas com lesões ou traumas
  • Inflamação nasal devido a alergias crónicas
  • Pólipos ou massas nasais

 

Quais são as condições para a Rinoplastia?

 

A rinoplastia é uma das cirurgias plásticas mais acessíveis, bastando apenas uma única condição a ser cumprida:

 

  • O paciente deve ser elegível para ser submetido a anestesia geral.

 

Quais são os factores a ter em conta antes da rinoplastia?

 

Recomenda-se aos pacientes o seguinte:

  • Os doentes devem estar no hospital um dia antes da cirurgia para efectuarem os testes pré-operatórios.
  • Os doentes devem deixar de fumar e de consumir álcool pelo menos 2 semanas antes da cirurgia para reduzir o risco de coágulo sanguíneo.
  • Os pacientes devem evitar medicamentos que contenham aspirina ou ibuprofeno (Advil, Motrin IB, outros) durante duas semanas antes e depois da cirurgia. Estes medicamentos podem aumentar o risco de hemorragia interna. Os pacientes devem confirmar cada medicamento e suplemento que desejam tomar com o coordenador do paciente.
  • Os pacientes devem saber que o inchaço e as nódoas negras podem ser excessivos após a rinoplastia e que o nariz pode demorar algumas semanas a sarar.

 

Como é efectuada a Rinoplastia?

 

A rinoplastia é flexível, pois permite que o osso, o tecido cartilaginoso e a camada de pele sejam modificados. Um Cirurgião Plástico terá em conta as características faciais do paciente, a pele à volta do nariz e os pedidos antes de fazer uma recomendação.

 

Em primeiro lugar, os pacientes são anestesiados para garantir a segurança e o conforto durante o procedimento. O Cirurgião Plástico começa por fazer incisões perto do nariz, as incisões são escondidas dentro do nariz se for efectuada uma Rinoplastia fechada ou são feitas através da columela, a estreita faixa de tecido que separa as narinas, se for efectuada uma Rinoplastia aberta.

 

Através destas incisões, a pele que cobre os ossos nasais e as cartilagens é suavemente levantada, permitindo o acesso à estrutura do nariz. O cirurgião pode então remover a cartilagem, usar suturas para remodelar a cartilagem, contornar o osso ou colocar enxertos de cartilagem. Se for efectuada uma rinoplastia funcional, as obstruções das vias aéreas ou os problemas respiratórios são corrigidos.

 

Por fim, uma vez feitas as correcções necessárias, são colocadas suturas para fechar as incisões e o nariz é enfaixado de forma adequada.

 

Quais são os factores a ter em conta após a rinoplastia?

 

Pode ser colocada uma tala dentro do nariz do paciente e ligaduras à volta do nariz para suportar a nova estrutura do nariz e ajudar no processo de recuperação. O inchaço diminuirá dentro de algumas semanas, mas o novo contorno nasal pode levar até um ano para ser totalmente refinado.

 

O aspeto do nariz irá mudar gradualmente à medida que o processo de cicatrização continua. Durante o processo de cicatrização, os doentes são aconselhados da seguinte forma:

  • Evite actividades extenuantes e exercícios intensos, como aeróbica e jogging
  • Tente manter a área operada longe da água
  • Evitar expressões faciais que pressionem o nariz, como sorrir ou rir.
  • Escovar os dentes suavemente para limitar o movimento do lábio superior.
  • Tentar evitar o contacto com o nariz e ter cuidado ao vestir ou despir a roupa.

 

Quais são os riscos da rinoplastia?

 

Embora a rinoplastia seja uma cirurgia relativamente segura, com um processo de cicatrização confortável, ela ainda apresenta certos riscos, como qualquer outra cirurgia de grande porte, tais como

 

  • Hemorragia
  • Infeção
  • Assimetria
  • Uma reação adversa à anestesia
  • Dificuldade em respirar pelo nariz
  • Dormência dentro e à volta do nariz
  • Dor, descoloração ou inchaço que podem persistir
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